Please enable it to take advantage of the complete set of features! Yorifuji T, Kashima S, Tsuda T, Harada M. Sci Total Environ. The Minamata disaster has certainly been the most outstanding example recorded of the effects of industrial irresponsibility and will remain as a never to be forgotten lesson. In addition, fetuses are exposed to methylmercury via the placenta from maternal fish consumption, and high-level exposure to methylmercury causes damage to the brains of infants. Therefore, sea creatures were greatly affected by the substance, and as a result, Minamata disease is caused by the intake of the defiled seafood. Minamata disease is an encephalopathy and peripheral neuropathy caused by daily intake of fish and shellfish highly contaminated by methylmercury. Here the mercury was converted by micro-organisms into organic mercury, which is quite different from inorganic mercury as it is not very soluble in water but very soluble in fat. - Minamata disease. 2016 May 3;71(3):170-7. doi: 10.1080/19338244.2015.1080153. Curr Opin Pediatr. Minamata disease, sometimes referred to as Chisso-Minamata disease, is a neurological syndrome caused by severe mercury poisoning. In Minamata City, major industrial activities except agriculture have been depressed since the official discovery of Minamata Disease, The growth in the fish catch, commercial sales, and industrial production has become poor compared with those of the entire prefecture. The processes used inorganic mercury (mercuric oxide) as a catalyst. He fed cats waste effluent from the factory that was producing acetaldehyde and was able to produce similar symptoms in them, and he detected other changes by pathological examination at autopsy. Then, the local population of people that depended on fish were affected, particularly developing fetuses and children. Once the neurologic sequelae of Minamata disease are evident, the damage is irreversible, and severe intoxications have been fatal. The neuropathology of Minamata disease has been well studied; this review focuses on human cases of Minamata disease in Kumamoto Prefecture. Minamata disease is one of the most significant negative consequences associated with environmental pollution caused by industrial activity in the world. Dr Hosokawa, director of the Minamata City hospital was conducting his own experiments based on the theory from the university. However, the damage may be minimized if … Geniposide attenuates cadmium‑induced oxidative stress injury via Nrf2 signaling in osteoblasts. Consequently it was readily absorbed by plankton and other organisms in the sea which were the food for shellfish and small fish. First, local cats that ate the fish began to stagger about and die. Characteristics of hand tremor and postural sway in patients with fetal-type Minamata disease.  |  The effects of Minamata disease have primarily affected women and children. The Nippon Chisso Company: Beginnings II. HHS Minamata disease: A disorder caused by methyl mercury poisoning that was first described in the inhabitants of Minamata Bay, Japan and resulted from their eating fish contaminated with mercury industrial waste. 168-71) and acetaldehyde for many years. In “Adverse Effects of Methylmercury: Environmental Health Research Implications,” Grandjean et al. In the city there was a factory that manufactured the chemicals vinyl chloride (used to make the plastic PVC; see pp. Fish consumption, methylmercury and child neurodevelopment. At the same time. Mineshi SAKAMOTO, Takaaki ITAI, Katsuyuki MURATA, Effects of Prenatal Methylmercury Exposure: From Minamata Disease to Environmental Health Studies, Nippon Eiseigaku Zasshi (Japanese Journal of Hygiene)Nippon Eiseigaku Zasshi (Japanese Journal of Hygiene), … 2008 Apr;20(2):178-83. doi: 10.1097/MOP.0b013e3282f5614c. Minamata disease is transmitted by the consumption of large numbers of shellfish and fish living in the Minamata Bay and its environs which was contaminated by mercury compound. Into this bay flows the effluent from a large fertilizer factory. What has methylmercury in umbilical cords told us? Methylmercury, the causative agent of Minamata disease, can easily penetrate the brain, and adult-type Minamata disease patients showed neurological symptoms according to the brain regions where the neurons, mainly in the cerebrum and cerebellum, were damaged. Yorifuji T, Kado Y, Diez MH, Kishikawa T, Sanada S. Arch Environ Occup Health. In extreme cases, insanity, paralysis, coma, and death follow within weeks of the onset of symptoms. as follows: 2) a retrospective study on temporal and regional variations of methylmercury pollution in Minamata area using preserved umbilical cord methylmercury, 3) decline in male sex ratio observed in Minamata area, 4) characteristics of hand tremor and postural sway in fetal-type Minamata disease patients, 5) methylmercury transfer from mothers to infants during gestation and lactation (the role of placenta), 6) extrapolation studies using rat models on the effects of prenatal methylmercury exposure on the human brain, and 7) risks and benefits of fish consumption. Minamata disease, or methylmercury poisoning, was first discovered in 1956 around Minamata Bay, Kumamoto Prefecture, Japan. Minamata disease (methylmercury poisoning) was first discovered in 1956 around Minamata Bay, Kumamoto Prefecture, Japan. Severely affected children born with congenital Minamata disease are mental retarded and have disturbed coordination, deformities of the limbs, poor reflexes, poor nutrition and growth, and, in some cases, show other effects. While people living outside of the Minamata area had an average level of 4ppm, people living in Mina… The factory eventually stopped the process in 1968 and in the same year the Japanese government announced its opinion that the disease was due to consumption of methyl mercury in contaminated fish and seafood. At Kumamoto University, research suggested that the disease was a type of heavy metal poisoning transmitted by fish and shellfish. [Mercury as a Global Pollutant and Mercury Exposure Assessment and Health Effects]. It was caused by the release of methyl mercury in the industrial waste water from the Chisso Corporation’s chemical factory, which continued from 1932 to 1968. After a number of cases were seen, investigations started. These would be eaten by larger, predatory fish and so the methyl mercury passed up the food plastics plastics. The people of Minamata reported numbness in their limbs and lips. Iwata T, Takaoka S, Sakamoto M, Maeda E, Nakamura M, Liu XJ, Murata K. J Toxicol Sci. Epub 2009 Oct 29. Keywords: Minamata disease is typical of modern industrial pollution in so far as it manifests a wide geographic spread of impacts and casualties. Fish can concentrate methyl mercury to the extent of 10,000 to 100,000 times that in the surrounding water. Clipboard, Search History, and several other advanced features are temporarily unavailable. Inorganic mercury, although poisonous, might have been expected to disperse in the water, but it was mixed with other effluent and this sludge settled at the bottom of the bay. Typical patients with fetal-type Minamata disease (i.e., serious poisoning caused by in utero exposure to methylmercury) were born during the period of severe methylmercury pollution in 1955-1959, although they showed no abnormality during gestation nor at delivery. In extreme cases, insanity, paralysis, coma and death follow within weeks of the onset of symptoms. How mercury from a Japanese factory contaminated fish in Minamata Bay. A second epidemic in Japan occurred in 1965 along the Agano River, Niigata Prefecture. This paper presents a brief review of Minamata disease with an emphasis on the cases found in Kumamoto Prefecture. Their pet cats, which were also eating the fish, suffered similar symptoms. The Minamata Convention is named after the Japanese city of Minamata, which experienced a severe, decades-long incidence of mercury poisoning after industrial wastewater from a chemical factory was discharged into Minamata Bay.The wastewater contained methylmercury, which bioaccumulated in fish and shellfish in the bay. Effect of Minamata disease status and the perception of unfairness on ill health and inequalities in health amongst residents of Shiranui Sea communities. This site needs JavaScript to work properly. Recovering from the defeat of the Second World War IV. This effluent was discharged into the waters of Minamata Bay. These epidemics appeared during an era in which productivity took the highest priority and little consideration was given to the environment. 2009 Dec 20;408(2):272-6. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2009.10.011. Get the latest public health information from CDC: https://www.coronavirus.gov, Get the latest research information from NIH: https://www.nih.gov/coronavirus, Find NCBI SARS-CoV-2 literature, sequence, and clinical content: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sars-cov-2/. Crossref, Google Scholar; Vogt RR, Nieuwland JA. In i966 the factory installed a water circulation system which removed the mercury pollution. Signs and symptoms include ataxia, numbness in the hands and feet, general muscle weakness, loss of peripheral vision, and damage to hearing and speech. Then, we introduce the studies that were conducted mainly by Sakamoto et al. Counteraction and unconcern VII. 14. 2018;73(3):258-264. doi: 10.1265/jjh.73.258. A constant diet of contaminated food led to increasing amounts of methyl mercury accumulating in the bodies of the shellfish and small fish. A congenital form of the disease can also affect fetuses. Epub 2019 Jun 19. However, they showed difficulties in head control, sitting, and walking, and showed disturbances in mental development, these symptoms that are similar to those of cerebral palsy, during the growth periods after birth. Over two thousand people died, and thousands more experienced crippling injuries. Minamata Disease source What is Minamata Disease? I'd like to talk about the tardive effects of methylmercury poisoning around Minamata. He T, Shen H, Zhu J, Zhu Y, He Y, Li Z, Lu H. Mol Med Rep. 2019 Aug;20(2):1499-1508. doi: 10.3892/mmr.2019.10396. I. Exhausted by the outbreak of Minamata disease, the effect of the accelerated urban drift associated with high economic growth, and the subsequent decline of the regional economy, by September 2007, the population had also declined to 28,901 persons. 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